Article 1: Open book accounting in supply chain: when and how is it used in supply chain?
In this article author has given information related with the open book accounting. He has given information that how it is used in supply chain for providing detail of cost. This accounting practice is used in independent partners of business for disclosing information of cost. It also provides detail of cost drivers for business. This information can be used for controlling cost of material. In this article, author analyzed different examples of open book accounting. He has analyzed that how these practices are used in practical cases.
In this article, pattern of these practices in different corporate structures has been analyzed. Business relationship also affects on open book accounting practices. First is economic dependent, contract duration and contractual partners. With these differences in relationship, open accounting also changed. It has been found in this article that open book accounting is used in businesses that show high dependence between manufacturer and supplier. It is also found that it has been using in those businesses where there exists long duration of contract.
It has been found in different regions. It is found in Japanese culture. Its purpose is to analyze data for decision making by audience. It can be used to provide optimization to supply chain. It can be3 used calculation of cost by companies. There are different types of open accounting. Each has different characteristics as per the difference in base data, information flow as well as degree disclosure. Applications are analyzed on basis of information and corporate relationship. (Hoffjan, 2006)
Article 2: Reaping the Business Value of IT
In this article, author has given few suggestions for improving competitive advantage with the help of engaging intro information technology. He said that it is common in investment in information technologies that companies do not obtain according to their expectations. IT industry has been going towards competitive advantage by building these technologies into their processes. It has been augured by author that companies invest in information technology ignoring their competitors. He said that in IT industry every company has same IT strategies used for the same purposed.
He said that investments in Information technologies have increased competition in companies. It has increased competition in price and increased productivity of industries. Author said that IT has increased advantages for businesses and customers. It has increased buying power of customers. They can buy more with less money on the other hand; it has also given advantage to businesses. Author said that few researchers argue that there exists no direct relationship between performance and IT investment.
Author also highlighted that there is different between usage and deployment of information technology. Different decisions are made these different strategies. These differences are results in difference in strategic value of business. He said that IT deployment should be managed carefully. It is important to note that companies got competitive advantage by using and deploying IT in connection with their business strategies. (Marchand, 2005)
Article 3: Generating Premium Returns on Your IT Investments
In this article, author said that IT investments are generating returns for businesses but these returns are not according to their expectations. He used example of Japanese companies and said that it changes it products and menu according to the weather conditions. He knows needs of customers. Author said that it is savvy about IT usage for increasing its business returns. He said that it is improving its performance due to investment in information technology and implementation of local practices according to weather. Author said that it is generating higher returns as compared to other competitions.
He said that 7 Eleven invest in IT according to their business strategies. This is the reason of increase in returns from those investments. Author said that it is not possible for IT alone to fulfill all objectives of business. It was analyzed by researcher in this article that 147 companies were used to collect data related with IT investment. It was concluded that companies high IT savy are generating more returns. He said that few companies use management of IT portfolio for matching their strategic goals with IT investments.
Four classifications in IT have been analyzed in this article. Purpose of using transitional investment is to reduce cost. Purpose of using informational investment is to develop idea of communication, reporting, accounting etc. Strategic investment used to change business processes, services and products according the demand of market. Investment in infrastructures are made to reduce long-term IT cost and future initiatives. (Weill & Aral, 2006)
Article 4: Successfully Navigating the Turbulent Skies of a Large-Scale ERP
In this article, analysis of ERP implementation for integrating company has been given. In this article, author highlighted important issues in implementing integration. Bombardierv build first snowmobile. It has become popular in transportation industry. Diversification streaky also involved him to enter into industry of aerospace. It is now considered famous in the world for manufacturing and designing commercial aircrafts. It has organized its busi9ness into four different products. These include defense aircrafts, business aircrafts, regional and ambitious services.
Airline travel is purchased by people according to conditions of economy and political environment. It is one of important factor, which affects industry. In 2001, attract of terrorists affect this industry. Due to increased competition, issues for business have been increasing. It has been reported by project manger that due to acquisition strategy it has become silo organization in textbooks. ERP has been considered by company for its strategic vision implementation. (AUBERT, BOURDEAU, & WALKER4, 2012)
A project team was prepared for this purpose. Consultants were also employed for their project. Activities of change management have been analyzed by management team. A blue print was also prepared to translate objectives and vision into working. It used progressive implementation for this project. A huge project is the reason of implementation progressively. Data was managed successfully.
Article 5: Suppliers collaboration in action at IBM
In this article, author said that companies are feeling importance of supplier’s collaboration. It was provided in this article that IBM is believer in analyzing benefits associated with supply chain. It was provided by author that IBM have been involved in comprehensive program that emphasized on collaboration. Due to its effective results, it is now focusing on collaboration of employees, customers and other members. It has been collaborating with its suppliers by increasing its integration.
In this article, author has included collaboration process of IBM. It has included that how it has increased its collaboration with suppliers. Author included that how this collaboration helped it to increase its performance. It is focusing on interactive planning. It is using it for increasing relationship. It is using interactive planning for generating high returns. In this article, author has discussed interactive planning as per its benefits in the company. It is using it for gaining these advantages. It provides benefits to both parties. (Fleck, 2008)
It has many advantages it reduced delivery time. It also reduced transportation cost. It has advantages of increasing planning initiatives. It also provides flexibility in delivery of products. This interactive planning helps to reduce issues in collaboration. It should be used by companies not only to collaborate suppliers but to collaborate other partner’s employees and customers as well.
Article 6: The process and structure of user participation: a BPM system implementation case study
In this report, author has analyzed relationship between implementation of information technology and participation of participants. Purpose of this article is to explore this relationship. He has conducted research for finding this relationship. It has been analyzed in this article that what is relationship between these two variables. Whether they care linked positively or they are negatively linked with each other.
Mixed methodology was used for this purpose. It is used that how questionnaires would be tested. These are tested using mixed approach. It has been provided in this article, a survey be conducted from 143 participants. These participants answered research question. In this article, it is presented that how BPM system has been implemented. It has been revealed by this article that there are more non-participants. It was concluded from this article that these non-participants were involved in second phase. It has been revealed by this article that there exists positive relationship between participants and implementation of information technology.
It has been analyzed in the article that what activities were performed by participants and on what level these were performed. This article is valuable. In this article author has presented detail analysis that what strategies should be used to improve this participation of participants. It has been analyzed by author that how this consequences were brought into reality. He also analyzed that how they are linked together. (de Waa & Batenburg, 2014)
Article 7: Who needs budget?
In this article, author said that budgeting should be ended due to its nature of converting hierarchy of company. It converted companies into devolved networks. It has been argued by author that companies spend their time on reengineering, developing networks of IT, activity accounting, balance scorecards etc. it has been argued by author companies are unable to do so due to dominant nature of budget. It has been argued by author that companies can benefit from rejecting budget.
He used examples of companies for providing justification of its arguments. He said that these companies are famous in all over the world now. It has been provided by author that these companies do not allocate their resources in different activities. These companies do not decided their how performance would be evaluated in the end of year. Author said that budgeting starts before four months before ending fiscal year. He also analyzed problems in budget in many organizations.
In this article, author said that organizations should decide that when to include budgeting strategy. It should be analyzed carefully. Organizations should be reject their other priorities for analyzing and preparing their budget. It would negatively affect companies. It has been provided by author that companies can perform better by abolishing budgeting. He said that many companies are not preparing their budget. These companies are famous in the world as per their performance. (Hope & Fraser, 2003)
AUBERT, B. A., BOURDEAU, S., & WALKER4, B. (2012). Successfully Navigating the Turbulent Skies of a Large-Scale ERP. internatioanl journal of case studies in management , 10 (1).
de Waa, B. M., & Batenburg, R. (2014). The process and structure of userparticipation: a BPM systemimplementation case study. business process management , 20 (1).
Fleck, T. (2008). Suppliers collaboration in action at IBM. supply chain management review .
Hoffjan, A. (2006). OPEN BOOK ACCOUNTING IN SUPPLY CHAINS-WHEN AND HOW IS IT USED IN PRACTICE. Cost Management , 20 (6).
Hope, J., & Fraser, R. (2003). Who Needs Budgets. harward business review .
Marchand, D. A. (2005). Reaping the Business Value of IT. Business and Economic Review , 51 (4).
Weill, P., & Aral, S. (2006). Generating PremiumReturns on Your IT Investments. MIT Sloan management review , 27 (2).